The telescope was developed at the Leningrad Optical and Mechanical Association (LOMO) in 1960. Intensive observations in the 60s allowed obtaining a number of pioneering results on the physics of different variable stars and galaxies, characteristic features of the structure and chemical composition of the stellar atmospheres.
The main results gained with the Shajn telescope in the previous years are as follows:
- extended collection of the direct images of several dozen galaxies in 7-9 optical bandwidths and studies of star-formation processes based on this data (A.B. Severny, V.B. Nikonov, I.M. Kopylov, K.K. Chuvaev);
- solving problem of the symbiotic stars within the evolutionary model of binary systems consisting of different mass components (A.A. Boyarchuk);
- the first fast spectroscopy of the red dwarf flares and development of the chromospheric flare model (R.E. Gershberg);
- systematic studies of the quiescent spectra of the red dwarfs which led to the preliminary estimates of their atmospheric parameters (N.I. Shakhovskaya);
- discovery of helium enrichment in the atmospheres of hot stars on the main sequence (L.S. Lyubimkov);
- revealing variability of the Virgo-A jet in optics and existence of strong stratification of the gas density in gaseous structures of the Seyfert galaxies (V.I. Pronik);
- spectral monitoring of the active galactic nuclei for more than 30 years (K.K. Chuvaev, I.I. Pronik, V.I. Pronik, Yu.F. Malkov, S.G. Sergeev);
- the first photoelectric measurements of the stellar magnetic fields (A.B. Severny, V.M. Kuvshinov, N.S. Nikulin);
- discovery of lithium spots in the atmospheres of cool stars, correlation with stellar structure of the magnetic field (N.S. Polosukhina-Chuvaeva);
- detection of rapid variability of the active galactic nuclei on the time scales from several days to weeks (I.I. Pronik);
- deriving the most reliable estimates of the polarization degree of the red dwarf flare radiation (N.M. Shakhovskoy, Yu.S. Efimov);
- discovery of new evidences for mixing matter in stars to the giant stage (I.S. Savanov, S.V. Berdyugina);
- detection of excess sodium in the atmospheres of yellow supergiants (A.A. Boyarchuk, L.S. Lyubimkov);
- rapid changes in radial velocity of some rare-earth lines in RoAp stars (I.S. Savanov, V.P. Malanushenko);
- discovery of asymmetry in the winds of T Tauri stars caused by characteristics of the stellar magnetic fields (V.P. Grinin, P.P. Petrov);
- unveiling prominence-like structures of T Tauri stars (P.P. Petrov);
- detection of the circumstellar grain size growth during flares of RS CVn stars and some other stars (Yu.S. Efimov);
- discovery of anti-correlation between the X-ray and H-alpha emission of Cygnus X-1 (A.E. Tarasov);
- the first systematic study of chemical anomalies in the atmospheres of pulsating Delta Sct stars (L.S. Lyubimkov, T.M. Rachkovskaya);
- detection of the short stage of the evolution of Be-phenomenon existence (A.E. Tarasov, S.L. Malchenko).
In cooperation with the Odessa State University there have been carried out pioneering works on polarimetry of cataclysmic variables AM Her, BY Cam, QQ Vul, MV Lyr; unprecedented UV Cet flares of the white dwarf in the AM Her system have been detected, circular polarization in the intermediate polar V405 Aqr has been first discovered (Yu. Efimov, N. Shakhovskoy, I. Andronov, S. Kolesnikov).
During 8 international campaigns on the comprehensive monitoring of flare activity of the red dwarf EV Lac the basic spectral observations have been performed at ZTSh. One of the important results - detection of splitting of the ionized helium line during the flare on 08/31/94, presumably due to the mass ejection (R. Gershberg, N. Shakhovskoy).
ZTSh was used in collaboration with other organizations in works on the lunar laser ranging (V.M. Mozhzherin and N.S. Chernykh) and tracking spacecrafts during their moving to the Moon, Venus and Mars to measure coordinates of spacecrafts needed for correcting their trajectory (P.P. Dobronravin, V.M. Mozhzherin, V.K. Prokofiev, N.S. Chernykh).